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    什么是顶针联

    2014-10-15 17:22| 发布者: wenqin| 查看: 2957| 评论: 0

    摘要: 对于初次见到顶针联的朋友>,肯定不知道这是什么>,也许你都见过了>,那么什么是顶针联呢>>?这种对联乃是将前一个分句的句脚字>>,作为后一个分句的句头字>,使相邻的两个分句>>,首尾相连>>,亦称“联珠对”>、“联锦对”。顶针 ...
    对于初次见到顶针联的朋友>>,肯定不知道这是什么>,也许你都见过了,那么什么是顶针联呢?这种对联乃是将前一个分句的句脚字,作为后一个分句的句头字,使相邻的两个分句,首尾相连,亦称“联珠对”>、“联锦对”>。
    顶针>,又叫顶真>、联珠>>、链式结构等。顶真法是将前一句或前一节奏的尾字,作为后一句或后一节奏的首字>,使两个音节或句子首尾相连>,前后承接>,产生上递下接的效果>,好像串珠子似的一种制联方法。用顶真法创制的联语,要做到语句递接紧凑、生动明快方为佳联>>。顶真与叠字形式相仿但本质却不同>,顶真可以是一个单字>,也可以是一个复词或词组>>,既可以一次使用,也可以重复使用>。

    顶针联的分类:
    字顶针联
    以字为顶针单位>。
    如:水面冻冰,冰积雪>,雪上加霜;空中腾雾>,雾成云,云开见日>>。
    又如:望天空,空望天>,天天有空望天空>>;求人难,难求人,人人逢难求人难>。
    词顶针联

    以词为顶针单位。如:
    年年喜鹊衔红梅,红梅吐芳映红日;
    岁岁捷报入春联>,春联含笑迎春风>。
    句中顶针联

    即在句中断续处顶针。如:
    常德德山山有德>>;
    长沙沙水水无沙。
    又如:
    阎锡山过无锡登锡山锡山无锡
    范长江到天长望长江长江天长
    句间顶针联

    即在各断句间顶真,如:
    大肚能容,容天下难容之事;
    开口便笑>>,笑天下可笑之人>>>。
    又如:
    黄黍地中走黄鼠>,鼠拖黍穗;
    白杨树下卧白羊,羊啃杨枝。
    句句顶针对联

    即在各断句间以整句顶真,如:
    千古流>>,千古楼>,千古楼上望千古流>>,流楼共千古>;
    人月印,人月影,人月影里合人月印,印影同人月>>。

    顶针联学习:
    寿禄比南山,山不老>,老福人>>,人杰年丰>,丰衣足食>,食的珍肴美味,位列三台,台享荣华富贵>>,贵有稀客,客多是理>,理正言顺也>;
    晦气如东海,海真大,大贪鬼,鬼面兽心>>>,心术不端,端是财痞杂种>,终必一死>,死无下葬墓地>>,地伏饿狼>,狼撕其身,身败名裂哉>>!
    相传这副楹联的上联是个好吹牛拍马的富家子弟给一个大富翁送的寿联>>。做寿之日无人能对下联,喜得富翁眉开眼笑>。一个穷秀才见了上联,即对出下联>,叫一小孩送上>,气得富翁七窍生烟,寿席不欢而散。这副楹联的上下联都是采用顶真法创制的>,联语象一条环环相扣的链子>,上联把富翁捧上了天>,下联却把富翁骂得狗血喷头,死有余辜>,令人拍手称快。
    顶真对联,根据用字的位置和频率,可以分为句中顶真、句间顶真和句句顶真。
    句中顶真>,即在句中结奏点(断读处)传递文字>>,古人称之为联绵(连绵)>。如长沙白沙井联:
    常德德山山有德;
    长沙沙水水无沙>。
    按七言联“二二三”节奏式>,可读为“常德-德山-山有德>>;长沙-沙水-水无沙”>>。德、山、沙>、水均为句内顶真>。
    句间顶真>,即在各断句间传递文字>>。如下面一副戏台联堪称顶真联中的佳品:
    看我非我>,我看我,我也非我>;
    装谁象谁>,谁装谁,谁就象谁>>>。
    这副顶真楹联概括力极强>>,仅用了八个字,就把戏剧演员忘掉自我、逼真肖人的精彩表演描述出来了,该联对仗工稳,精巧风趣>,联意隽永>,是一副绝妙戏联。
    句句顶真,即无论断句多少,联珠到最后一句>>,可称之“连环”。根据其断句多少>,可分为大小两种。
    小连环一般是三个断句,两处顶真。如四川青城山天师洞联:
    一生二>,二生三,三生万物>>;
    地法天>>,天法道,道法自然>。
    大连环是三次以上的顶真。如前面所举的“寿禄比南山”联,多达十次顶真。此联还有另一面目:
    寿比南山>>,山不老,老大人,人寿年丰>,丰衣足食,食的珍肴美味>>,位列三台,台享荣华富贵>>,贵客早应该来>>,来之是理,理所当然;
    福如东海,海阔大>,大老人>,人面兽心,心田不好,好一个老杂种,终久必死>,死无葬身之地>,地穴未打未来>,来之后悔>,悔之晚矣!
    这副大连环联,在平仄>、对仗>、重复等方面>,明显带有民间传说的原始性,所以传说中下联乃一老农所对>>。
    不同的顶真方法>,有时候还可以综合运用。请看一副风景联:
    听雨雨住,住听雨楼边,住听雨声>,声滴滴>>,听、听>、听>;
    观潮潮来>>,来观潮阁上>,来观潮浪>,浪涛涛,观>、观>>、观。
    这副顶真对,既有句内顶真>,又有分句之间的顶真>。上联妙用一字两义>,“住”一作“停止”>>,一作“住宿”>,把听雨观潮之妙趣随着语意的跳跃尽纳联中>。
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